Classes of Conjunctions
There are two classes of Conjunctions:
What are Co-ordinating Conjunctions?
Co-ordinating Conjunctions - they join together clauses of equal rank, i.e. coordinating clauses.
Co-ordinating clauses have their own independent meaning and can stand on their own.
Birds fly and fish swim.
The chief Co-ordinating Conjunctions are:
and, or, but, for, while, nor, also, either-or, neither-nor, yet, then, as well as, with, together with, without, besides, alongwith, not only…but also, not merely…but also, whether…or, else, or else, still, so, therefore, otherwise, nonetheless, however, nevertheless, hence, thus, whereas etc.
Clauses of equal rank status
- Subject - Subject
- Object – Object
- Compliment – Compliment
- Preposition – Preposition
- Verb – Verb
- Adjective – Adjective
- Adverb – Adverb
Either Meenakshi will dance or sing with me. (incorrect)
Meenakshi will either dance or sing with me. (correct)
Our company not only manufactures keyboards but also headphones. (incorrect)
Our company manufactures not only keyboards but also headphones. (correct)
Replacement of Co-ordinating Conjunctions
Most of the Co-ordinating Conjunctions may be replaced with a comma, semicolon, or colon (except ‘or’, ‘nor’).
Aanya went out to play but Geetanjali stayed in to work.
Aanya went out to play; Geetanjali stayed in to work.
Types of Co-ordinating Conjunctions
Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four kinds:
Cumulative or Copulative Conjunctions
They just add one statement to another or one word to another (two nouns, two pronouns, two adjectives etc).
She is rich and happy. (and connecting two adjectives – rich, happy)
They express opposition or contrast between two statements.
This is a slow, but certain method.
I was humiliated, still I did not react.
Disjunctive or Alternative Conjunctions
They express a choice between two alternatives.
She must admit her crime, or she will get a harsher punishment.
Work quickly, else you will not be able to deliver the project on time.
They join two actions in which one action is the result of the other action (i.e. they express an inference).
All precautions must have been neglected in Italy, for the covid-19 spread rapidly.
What are Subordinating Conjunctions?
Subordinating Conjunction – it joins sub-ordinating clause with main clause.
The main Subordinating Conjunctions are:
after, because, if, that, in order that, so that, unless, until, till, since, ever since, before, after, as long as, as soon as, that, so long as, because, as, as if, even if, even though, though, although, hardly…when, if, whether, scarcely…when, no sooner…than, lest, provided that, supposing, in case, when, whenever, where, who, whoever, however, while.
As soon as the speech started, the demonstrators rushed to the platform.
(As soon as the speech started – subordinate clause; the demonstrators rushed to the platform – main clause)
‘than’ – it is also a Subordinating Conjunction.
I like you better than she (likes you).
I like you better than (I like) her.
Types of Subordinating Conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions may be classified according to their meaning:
when, whenever, till, until, before, since, while, as soon as, as long as, just as, after
The patient died before I could do anything.
Many things have happened since we met last year.
We can play wherever we want.
Cause or Reason: since, because, as
Since you have asked for it, it will be provided to you.
My apprehensions are becoming a reality, because my son is performing poorly in academics.
As my manager was not there, I spoke to his assistant.
If ‘as’ and ‘since’ denote a reason, they are not followed by ‘so’
As he was ill, so he could not play. (incorrect)
As he was ill, he could not play. (correct)
Since she is a liar, so we cannot trust him. (incorrect)
Since she is a liar, we cannot trust him. (correct)
that, so that, in order that, lest
We work so that we may grow.
She taught me lest I should fail.
Result or Consequence
so … that, such … that
She was so hurt that she could hardly hold back her tears.
if, supposing, unless, provided
I will resign if Mayank resigns.
We will lose the match unless we improve our run rate.
Though he cheated me, yet I will give him a second chance.
A claim is a claim, although there’s no substance in it.
as, as … as, so … as, than
Hawking was as creative as Einstein in thought experiments.
A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend.
as … as / so … as is used to make a comparison between two person or things. While ‘as…as’ can be used in both affirmative and negative sentences, but ‘so … as’ is used only in negative sentences.
She is as good a student as you. (Affirmative sentence)
She is not as good a student as you. (Negative sentence)
She is not so good a student as you. (Negative sentence)
Words that can work both as subordinating and coordinating conjunction
Few words can function both as subordinating and coordinating conjunction, depending on what meaning they convey.
Let’s see some of such words.
However is a:
coordinating conjunction – when it means ‘even though/but’
Mayank is very hard-working, however there seems to be some fault in his stars. (as ‘however’ is a coordinating conjunction here, so we cannot put it in the beginning)
subordinating conjunction - when it means ‘no matter how much’
However difficult my life is, I will make it a grand success.
While is a:
coordinating conjunction – when it means ‘whereas’
Your dog is cute while mine is ugly. (as ‘while’ is a coordinating conjunction here, so we cannot put it in the beginning)
subordinating conjunction - when it means ‘during’
While I was studying, he was playing in the backyard.
Position of subordinating conjunctions
We can put a subordinating conjunction anywhere.
- $Clause_1$ + Subordinating conjunction + $Clause_2$ = meaningful
- Subordinating conjunction + $Clause_2$ + $Clause_1$ = meaningful
My manager thinks I am satisfied because I don’t complain. (correct)
Because I don’t complain, my manager thinks I am satisfied. (correct)
(Because I don’t complain - sub-ordinate clause; because – subordinating conjunction)
Position of coordinating conjunctions
If we put a coordinating conjunction at the beginning then it will be meaningless. Though we can place a coordinating conjunction anywhere in the middle.
- $Clause_1$ + Coordinating conjunction + $Clause_2$ = meaningful
- Coordinating conjunction + $Clause_2$ + $Clause_1$ = meaningless
Extra Books and Tools
Though the matter on our website is in-depth and comprehensive enough for the demands of most of the aptitude exams, but it may feel daunting for the same reasons. Moreover, some learners prefer paperback books over websites.
So, if you are a beginner level English learner, and prefer books, you may explore the following English Grammar books too.
1. Wren & Martin - This book has been around for long and is still considered one of the best. Though many concepts have not been dealt with in much depth here, but beginners may find it a breeze to read. Once you are done with it, the content on our website will work as a rich add-on. If you are getting this book, make sure you get the key to its exercises too.
Links for readers from USA, UK, Canada, and other countries:
High School English Grammar and Composition Paperback
Key to Wren and Martin
Link for Indian readers: Wren and Martin
2. More advanced learners may refer to the following books. However, buy them only if you must. Most of your English Grammar learning needs will easily be met by our website.
A. Essential English Grammar by Raymond Murphy
Link for readers from USA, UK, Canada, and other countries: Essential Grammar in Use - with Answers
Link for Indian readers: Essential English Grammar
B. Intermediate English Grammar by Raymond Murphy
Link for readers from USA, UK, Canada, and other countries: English Grammar in Use - with Answers
Link for Indian readers: Intermediate English Grammar
C. Advanced English Grammar by Martin Hewings
Link for readers from USA, UK, Canada, and other countries: Advanced Grammar in Use - with Answers
Link for Indian readers: Advanced English Grammar
So much so for Englsh Grammar. But what about Comprehension skills and Vocabulary?
We strongly believe that Comprehension skills and Vocabulary are more a matter of practice. The more you read, the better you will become in them. In fact, this will help you in Grammar too. Afterall Grammar rules are just in the nature of temporary scaffholding - the goal is to read, write and speak a language without consciously remembering even a single Grammar rule.
So, we suggest you to read vividly. Ideally, carry some tool with you that you may refer so as to learn the meaning of any word that is new to you. There are many ways you may go about it.
* The old method: Carry a good dictionary with you. But who does?
* Download a Thesauraus app on your mobile or just google it. Better, but we still need to stop reading, open the app, type and then search. Boring!
The methods mentioned above kill the joy of reading. Who wants to stop reading in the midst of an interesting plot and look for the meaning of a word? And if you are a lazy soul like me, Oh man! No chance!
That's why I prefer to read on gadgets like Kindle. We may just tap on any word and see its meaning there and then. It's also not taxing on the eyes.
Link for readers from USA, UK, Canada, and other countries:
Link for Indian readers:
There are a multitude of Kindle models and versions available. So, you may have to do some research on your own regarding which model serves your need the best. Though, any model will meet our basic reading needs.
If you guys know about any more such books, gadgets and technologies that are awesome and may help English learners, do share 😇