Changes in Reporting verb in case of Exclamatory and Optative sentences

We make any change in the reporting verb and in the sentence structure of direct speech depending on the kind of sentence used under inverted commas.

There may be five kinds of sentences in the inverted commas:

  • Assertive
  • Interrogative
  • Imperative
  • Exclamatory
  • Optative

In this article, we will cover the transformation in case of Exclamatory and Optative sentences.

Changing the Reporting verb in Exclamatory sentences

Concept 1

Direct and Indirect speech
If the exclamatory sentence is inside the inverted commas in direct speech, then while converting it into indirect speech we remove the exclamatory expressions and interjections (e.g. how, what, hurray, aha, alas, oh, shit, oops, wow, hush, hmm, etc.)
In these sentences, conjunction ‘that’ will replace comma and inverted commas.

Concept 2

Said + Hurray! / Wow! changes to exclaimed with joy.
Said + Alas! changes to exclaimed with sorrow.

He said, " Hurray! I have won”.
He exclaimed with joy that he had won.

He said, “Alas! I am bankrupt”.
He exclaimed with sorrow that he was bankrupt.

Instead of ‘exclaimed with sorrow’, we can also use ‘exclaimed sadly’.

He said, “Alas! I am broke.”
He exclaimed sadly that he was broke.

Concept 3

Said + Ugh! changes to exclaimed with despise/disgust.
Said + Oh! changes to exclaimed with surprise/regret.
Said + Bravo! changes to applauded.

She said, “Bravo! you are a champion.”
She applauded him saying that he was a champion.

Concept 4

Direct speech: Subject + say/said….., “what + a/an + Noun!”
Indirect speech: Subject + exclaim with joy/sorrow …….. that + it + is/was + a/an + appropriate adjective + Noun …..

Penny said, “what a museum!”
Penny exclaimed with joy/surprise that it was a beautiful museum.

Concept 5

Direct speech: Subject + say/said……, “what + a/an + Adjective + Noun!”
Indirect speech (in general): Subject + exclaim with joy/sorrow/…… + that + it + is/was + a/an + very + Adjective + Noun…..

He said, “what a beautiful picture!”.
He exclaimed that the picture was very beautiful.
He exclaimed with joy that it was a very beautiful picture.

Riya said, “what a cute puppy you have!”
Riya exclaimed with joy that I had a very cute puppy.

Changing the Reporting verb in Optative sentences

Direct and Indirect speech

He said, “May you live long”.
He wished me long life. OR
He blessed me with a long life.

Jim said to me, “May you fail soon!”
Jim cursed me that I might fail soon.

Share on: