Parts of Speech

Words are divided into different classes, called Parts of Speech, according to their use in a sentence.

The parts of speech are eight in number:

  1. Noun
  2. Adjective
  3. Pronoun
  4. Verb
  5. Adverb
  6. Preposition
  7. Conjunction
  8. Interjection


A Verb is a word used to express an action or state.

The boy wrote a letter to his dad. (wrote – an action)

action verb

Bristol is a big city. (is – a state)

Verbs are the most important words in English language. Two main reasons:
a. Every sentence in English must have a verb.
b. Verbs are the only parts of speech that can denote tenses.


A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing. Also, ideas, abstract things, e.g. happiness, time etc.

Nouns are sometimes called ‘naming words’.

Ashoka was a king.
noun king

Aanya went to Andaman on vacation with her husband last year. nouns


A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It replaces a noun.

Mragank is absent, because Mragank is ill. (sounds odd)
Mragank is absent, because he is ill. (he - Subject pronoun)

The cards are where you left the cards. (sounds odd)
The cards are where you left them. (them - Object pronoun)

  • Subject pronouns – Used to replace a noun in subject positions I, you, we, they, he, she, it

  • Object pronouns – Used to replace a noun in object positions me, you, us, them, him, her, it


An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun or pronoun.

Adjectives are sometimes called ‘describing words’.

Ashoka was a king.
Ashoka was a great king.

He is a boy.
He is a brave boy.

There are boys in this club.
There are forty boys in this club.


An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. They answer the questions Where, When, How, Why.

The boy wrote a letter to her dad.
The boy quickly wrote a letter to her dad. (wrote – verb; How? - quickly, an adverb modifying the verb wrote)

He is a brave boy.
He is a very brave boy. (brave - adjective; very - adverb modifying the adjective brave)

She pronounced the word.
She pronounced the word correctly. (pronounced – verb; correctly - adverb modifying the verb pronounced)
She pronounced the word quite correctly. (quite - adverb modifying the adverb correctly)

  • They may even add meaning to a whole sentence.

We went on a walk.
Yesterday evening, we went on a walk. (went – verb; When? - Yesterday evening) adverb

They missed the bus and were late to their own party!
Unfortunately, they missed the bus and were late to their own party! (Unfortunately - adverb)

So both adjectives and adverbs add something to the meaning, i.e. they give some extra information.


A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.

  • Prepositions can add idea of time, place and movement to noun/pronoun.

There is a butterfly in the garden. (in – Place - Where?) preposition

I’ll see you at the office on Tuesday. (at – Place - Where? ; on – Time - When?)

The driver moved towards the door. (towards - Movement)

  • Prepositions can connect other words to a noun/pronoun

It depends on the cost. (here the preposition ‘on’ links the noun ‘the cost’ with the verb ‘depends’)


A Conjunction is a word used to join words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

Conjunctions are sometimes called ‘joining words’.

Mragank and Anand are cousins.

I ran fast. I missed the bus.
I ran fast, but missed the bus. conjunction


An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden emotion.

They don’t have any real meaning.

Alas! She is dead.

Wow! What a sight. interjection

Interjections are used more commonly in speech and less in writing.

In writing they are often followed by an exclamation point (i.e. !).

Extra Books and Tools

Though the matter on our website is in-depth and comprehensive enough for the needs of most of the aptitude exams, but it may also feel daunting for the same reasons. Moreover, some learners prefer books over websites. So, if you are a beginner level English learner, and prefer books, you may explore the following English Grammar books too.

1. Wren & Martin - This book has been around for long and is still considered one of the best. Though many concepts have not been dealt with in much depth here, but beginners may find it a breeze to read. Once you are done with it, the content on our website will work as a rich add-on. If you are getting this book, make sure you get the key to its exercises too.

Link for Indian readers: Wren and Martin

2. More advanced learners may refer to the following books. However, buy them only if you must. Most of your English Grammar learning needs will easily be met by our website.

Essential English Grammar by Raymond Murphy
Link for Indian readers: Essential English Grammar

Intermediate English Grammar by Raymond Murphy
Link for Indian readers: Intermediate English Grammar

Advanced English Grammar by Martin Hewings
Link for Indian readers: Advanced English Grammar

So much so for Englsh Grammar. But what about Comprehension skills and Vocabulary?

We strongly believe that Comprehension skills and Vocabulary are more a matter of practice. The more you read, the better you will become in them. In fact, this will help you in Grammar too. Afterall Grammar rules are just in the nature of temporary scaffholding - the goal is to read, write and speak a language without consciously remembering even a single Grammar rule.

So, we suggest you to read vividly. Ideally, carry some tool with you that you may refer to learn the meaning of any word that is new to you. There are many ways you may go about it.

* The old method: Carry a good dictionary with you. But who does?

* Download a Thesauraus app on your mobile or just google it. Better, but we still need to stop reading, open app, type and then search. Boring!

The methods mentioned above kill the joy of reading. Who wants to stop reading in the midst of an interesting plot and look for the meaning of a word? And if you are a lazy soul like me, oh man! No chance!

That's why I prefer to read on gadgets like Kindle. We may just tap on any word and see its meaning there and then. It's also not taxing on the eyes.

If you guys know about any more such books, gadgets and technologies that are awesome and may help English learners, do share 😇
Share on: